Postdoctoral, Biology, 1981-1986, University of Utah
Ph.D., Biology, 1981, University of California, San Diego
B.S., Biology, 1976, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
• ALS/Biol 2404 Biotechnology in a Global Society
• ALS 3104 Animal Breeding and Genetics
• APSC/PPWS 5044 Biotechnology in Agriculture and Society
The chick derives its nutrients from the yolk during embryogenesis and feed in the intestine post-hatch. Both the yolk sac and the intestinal villi contain absorptive cells that mediate the uptake of nutrients. These absorptive cells contain membrane bound transporter proteins that mediate the uptake of nutrients such as amino acids, peptides and sugars and play an essential role in regulating both embryonic and post-hatch growth. We have profiled the mRNA expression of these nutrient transporters in the yolk sac during embryogenesis and in different segments of the small intestine during late embryogenesis and early post-hatch. We have found that there are tissue- and age-specific changes in nutrient transporter mRNA expression.
The host defense peptides are part of the innate immune system. In chickens, the host defense peptides include the avian beta defensins, cathelicidins and liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2). We have profiled the expression of the avian beta defensins and LEAP2 in the yolk sac and small intestine at different ages. We have shown that the epithelial cells lining the intestinal villi expressed LEAP2 mRNA
We have also profiled nutrient transporter and host defense peptide expression in response to challenge by an intestinal pathogen such as Eimeria, Salmonella and Campylobacter. In Eimeria challenged chickens, there was downregulation of nutrient transporters at both the brushborder and the basolateral membrane. In addition, there was downregulation of LEAP2 mRNA, which may promote survival of Eimeria.
The yolk sac and small intestine contain absorptive cells and other differentiated cells that arise from a population of stem cells. We are using in situ hybridization with cell-specific marker genes to identify absorptive and stem cells in both the yolk sac and small intestine. Epithelial cells lining both the yolk sac and intestinal villi express mRNA for the peptide transporter PepT1, which serves as a marker for absorptive cells. In the intestine, cells in the intestinal crypts express olfactomedin 4 (Olfm4) and Leucine-rich repeat G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) mRNA, which are markers for stem cells. In the yolk sac, cells that express Lgr5 but not Olfm4 were localized to the vascular endothelial cells lining the blood vessels and may be hematopoietic stem cells.
Zhang, H. and Wong, E.A. Identification of cells expressing Olfm4 and Lgr5 mRNA by in situ hybridization in the yolk sac and small intestine of embryonic and early posthatch chicks. Poult Sci. (in press).
Adikari, A.M.J.B., Xu, J., Casterlow, S., Li, E.R., McElroy, A.P., Emmerson, D.A., Dalloul, R.A., Wong, E.A., and Smith, E.J. 2017. Haplotype structure and DNA sequence variation of the liver expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (chLEAP2) gene in chickens challenged with Eimeria maxima. Intl. J. Poult. Sci. doi: 10.3923/ijps.2017 (in press).
Kaminski N.A. and Wong, E.A. 2017. Differential mRNA expression of nutrient transporters in male and female chickens. Poult. Sci. (in press). doi : 10.3382/ps/pex262.
Su, S., Dwyer, D.M., Miska, K.B. Fetterer, R.H. Jenkins, M.C., and Wong, E.A. 2017. Expression of avian beta-defensins in the intestine of Eimeria-challenged chickens. Poult Sci. 96:2421-2427. doi:10.3382/ps/pew468
Wong, E., Gilbert, E.R., and Miska, K.B. 2017. Nutrient transporter gene expression in poultry, livestock and fish. In Biology of Domestic Animals. Edited by Colin Scanes and Rodney Hill. CRC Press (in press)
Hamad, S., Kim, S., El Kadi, S.W., Wong, E.A., and Dalloul, R.A. 2017. Comparative expression of host defense peptides in turkey poults. Poultry Sci. 96:2083-2090. doi:10.3382/ps/pew500
Zhang, H, and Wong EA. 2017. Spatial transcriptional profile of PepT1 mRNA in the yolk sac and small intestine in broilers. Poult Sci. 96:2871-2876. doi:10.3382/ps/pex056
Brautigan, DL., Rasia Li, R., Kubicka, E., Turner, SD, Garcia, JS, Weintraut, ML, and Wong EA. 2017. Lysolecithin as feed additive enhances collagen expression and villus length in the jejunum of broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 96:2889-2898. doi:10.3382/ps/pex078
Zhang, S., Saremi, B., Gilbert, E.R., and Wong, E.A. 2016. Physiological and biochemical aspects of methionine isomers and their analogue in broilers. Poultry Science. 96:425-439. doi:10.3382/ps/pew253
Weintraut, M., Kim, S., Dalloul, R., and Wong, E.A. 2016. Expression of small intestinal nutrient transporters in embryonic and posthatch turkeys. Poult. Sci. 95:90-98.
Antonissen, G., Van Immerseel, F., Pasmans, F., Ducatelle, R., Janssens, G.P.J, Siegrid De Baere, S., Mountzouris, K.C., Su, S, Wong, E.A., Bruno De Meulenaer, B., Verlinden, M., Devreese, M., Haesebrouck, F., Novak, B., Dohnal, I., Martel, A., and Croubels, S. 2015. Mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and fumonisins alter the extrinsic component of intestinal barrier in broiler chickens. J. Agric. Food Chem. 63:10846-10855.
Yin, H., Sumners, L.H., Dalloul, R.A., Miska, K.B., Fetterer, R.H., Jenkins, M.C., Zhu, Q. and Wong, E.A. 2015. Expression of an antimicrobial peptide, digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the intestine of E. praecox-infected chickens. Poult. Sci. 94:1521-1526.
Miska, K.B., Fetterer, R.H. and Wong, E.A. 2015. The mRNA expression of amino acid transporters, aminopeptidase, and the di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1 in the intestine and liver of post-hatch broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 94:1323-1332.
Su, S., Miska, K.B., Fetterer, R.H., Jenkins, M.C., and Wong, E.A. 2015. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in Eimeria-challenged broilers. Exp. Parasitol. 150:13-21.
Zhang, S., Wong, E.A., and Gilbert, E.R. 2015. Bioavailability of different dietary supplemental methionine sources in animals. Frontiers Biosci. 7:491-500
Yadgary, L., Wong, E.A., and Uni, Z. 2014. Temporal transcriptome analysis of the chicken embryo yolk sac. BMC Genomics 15:690 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-690.
Fetterer, R.H., Miska, K.B., Jenkins, M.C., and Wong, E.A. 2014. Expression of nutrient transporters in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens. Parasitology Res. 113:3891-3894.
Miska, K.B., Fetterer, R.H., and Wong, E.A. 2014. The mRNA expression of amino acid transporters, aminopeptidase N, and the di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1 in the embryo of the domesticated chicken (Gallus gallus) shows developmental regulation. Poult. Sci. 93:2262-2270.
Su, S., Miska, K.B., Fetterer, R.H., Jenkins, M.C., and Wong, E.A. 2014. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in Eimeria acervulina-challenged layers and broilers. Poult. Sci. 93:1217-1226.
Yin, H., Zhang, S., Gilbert, E.R., Siegel, P.B., Zhu, Q., and Wong, E.A. 2014. Expression profiling of chickens divergently selected for high and low body weight. Poult. Sci. 93: 147-154.
Paris, N.E. and Wong, E.A. 2013. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the intestine of Eimeria maxima infected chickens. Poult. Sci. 92:1331-1335.
Zwarycz, B., and Wong, E.A. 2013. Expression of the peptide transporters, PepT1, PepT2, and PHT1 in the embryonic and post-hatch chick. Poult. Sci. 92:1314-1321. Weintraut, M., Kim, S., Dalloul, R., and Wong, E.A. 2016. Expression of small intestinal nutrient transporters in embryonic and posthatch turkeys. Poult. Sci. 95: 90-98.
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